- – Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Arte Conceptual y Posconceptual. La idea como arte: Duchamp, Beuys, Cage y Fluxus“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID, Nómadas Nº 37 | Enero-Junio 2013 (I), pp. 100 – 130
- The Destruction in Art Symposium (DIAS) was a gathering of a diverse group of international artists, poets, and scientists to London, from 9–11 September 1966. Included in this number were representatives of the counter-cultural underground who were there to speak on the theme of destruction in art.
- The Honorary Committee, led by Gustav Metzger, attracted the attention of both the international media and international art community to the symposium.
The symposium was held at theAfrica Centre in Covent Garden, London.
- A DIAS press release claimed:
The main objective of DIAS was to focus attention on the element of destruction in Happenings and other art forms, and to relate this destruction in society.
The laws of England
- Marcel Duchamp (French: [maʁsɛl dyʃɑ̃]; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Dadaism and conceptual art, although not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists (like Henri Matisse) as “retinal” art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to put art back in the service of the mind.
- Marcel Duchamp was born in Blainville-Crevon Seine-Maritime in the Upper Normandy region of France, and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities. The art of painter and engraver Emile Nicolle, his maternal grandfather, filled the house, and the family liked to play chess, read books, paint, and make music together.
- Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp’s seven children, one died as an infant and four became successful artists. Marcel Duchamp was the brother of:
As a child, with his two older brothers already away from home at school in Rouen, Duchamp was close to his sister Suzanne, who was a willing accomplice in games and activities conjured by his fertile imagination. At 8 years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers’ footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille, in Rouen. For the next 8 years, he was locked into an educational regime which focused on intellectual development. Though he was not an outstanding student, his best subject was mathematics and he won two mathematics prizes at the school. He also won a prize for drawing in 1903, and at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize, validating his recent decision to become an artist.
He learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to protect his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and other avant-garde influences. However, Duchamp’s true artistic mentor at the time was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid and incisive style he sought to imitate. At 14, his first serious art attempts were drawings and watercolors depicting his sister Suzanne in various poses and activities. That summer he also painted landscapes in an Impressionist style using oils.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. It began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter. To quote Dona Budd’s The Language of Art Knowledge,
Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara and Marcel Janco‘s frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name “Dada” came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to ‘dada’, a French word for ‘hobbyhorse’.
The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left.
Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Hans Arp, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia, Richard Huelsenbeck, Georg Grosz, John Heartfield, Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, and Hans Richter, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau réalisme, pop art and Fluxus.
Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism.
New York Dada had a less serious tone than that of European Dadaism, and was not a particularly organized venture. Duchamp’s friend Francis Picabia connected with the Dada group in Zürich, bringing to New York the Dadaist ideas of absurdity and “anti-art”. Duchamp and Picabia first met in September 1911 at the Salon d’Automne in Paris, where they were both exhibiting. Duchamp showed a larger version of his Young Man and Girl in Spring 1911, a work that had an Edenic theme and a thinly veiled sexuality also found in Picabia’s contemporaneous Adam and Eve 1911. According to Duchamp, ‘our friendship began right there”. A group met almost nightly at the Arensberg home, or caroused in Greenwich Village. Together with Man Ray, Duchamp contributed his ideas and humor to the New York activities, many of which ran concurrent with the development of his Readymades and ‘The Large Glass.’
The most prominent example of Duchamp’s association with Dada was his submission of Fountain, a urinal, to the Society of Independent Artists exhibit in 1917. Artworks in the Independent Artists shows were not selected by jury, and all pieces submitted were displayed. However, the show committee insisted that Fountain was not art, and rejected it from the show. This caused an uproar amongst the Dadaists, and led Duchamp to resign from the board of the Independent Artists.:181–186
When he returned to Paris after World War I, Duchamp did not participate in the Dada group.
“Readymades” were found objects which Duchamp chose and presented as art. In 1913, Duchamp installed a Bicycle Wheel in his studio. However, the idea of Readymades did not fully develop until 1915. The idea was to question the very notion of Art, and the adoration of art, which Duchamp found “unnecessary”
My idea was to choose an object that wouldn’t attract me, either by its beauty or by its ugliness. To find a point of indifference in my looking at it, you see.
Bottle Rack (1914), a bottle drying rack signed by Duchamp, is considered to be the first “pure” readymade. Prelude to a Broken Arm (1915), a snow shovel, also called In Advance of the Broken Arm, followed soon after. His Fountain, a urinal signed with the pseudonym “R. Mutt”, shocked the art world in 1917. Fountain was selected in 2004 as “the most influential artwork of the 20th century” by 500 renowned artists and historians.
In 1919, Duchamp made a parody of the Mona Lisa by adorning a cheap reproduction of the painting with a mustache and goatee. To this he added the inscription L.H.O.O.Q., a phonetic game which, when read out loud in French quickly sounds like “Elle a chaud au cul”. This can be translated as “She has a hot ass”, implying that the woman in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and availability. It may also have been intended as a Freudian joke, referring to Leonardo da Vinci‘s alleged homosexuality. Duchamp gave a “loose” translation of L.H.O.O.Q. as “there is fire down below” in a late interview with Arturo Schwarz. According to Rhonda Roland Shearer, the apparent Mona Lisa reproduction is in fact a copy modeled partly on Duchamp’s own face. Research published by Shearer also speculates that Duchamp himself may have created some of the objects which he claimed to be “found objects”.
The Large Glass
Duchamp worked on his complex Futurism inspired piece The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) from 1915 to 1923, with the exception of periods in Buenos Aires and Paris in 1918–1920. He executed the work on two panes of glass with materials such as lead foil, fuse wire, and dust. It combines chance procedures, plotted perspective studies, and laborious craftsmanship. He published notes for the piece, The Green Box, intended to complement the visual experience. They reflect the creation of unique rules of physics, and a mythology which describes the work. He stated that his “hilarious picture” is intended to depict the erotic encounter between a bride and her nine bachelors.
The piece was inspired by a performance of the stage adaptation of Roussel‘s novel Impressions d’Afrique which Duchamp attended in 1912. Notes, sketches and plans for the work were drawn on Duchamp’s studio walls as early as 1913. In order to concentrate on the work free from material obligations, Duchamp found work as a librarian while living in France. After emigrating to the United States in 1915, he commenced his work on the piece financed by the support of the Arensbergs.
The piece is partially constructed as a retrospective of Duchamp’s works, including a three-dimensional reproduction of his earlier paintings Bride (1912), Chocolate Grinder (1914) and Glider containing a water mill in neighboring metals (1913–1915), which has opened for numerous interpretations. The work was formally declared “Unfinished” in 1923. Going home from its first public exhibition, the glass broke in its shipping crate and received a large crack in the glass. Duchamp repaired it, but left the cracks in the glass intact, accepting the chance element as a part of the piece.
Duchamp’s interest in kinetic works can be discerned as early as the notes for The Large Glass and the Bicycle Wheel readymade, and despite losing interest in “retinal art”, he retained interest in visual phenomena. In 1920, with help from Man Ray, Duchamp built a motorized sculpture, Rotative plaques verre, optique de précision (“Rotary Glass Plates, Precision Optics”). The piece, which he did not consider to be art, involved a motor to spin pieces of rectangular glass on which were painted segments of a circle. When the apparatus spins, an optical illusion occurs, in which the segments appear to be closed concentric circles. Man Ray set up equipment to photograph the initial experiment, but when they turned the machine on for the second time, a belt broke, and caught a piece of the glass, which after glancing off Man Ray’s head, shattered into bits.:227–228
After moving back to Paris in 1923, at André Breton‘s urging and through the financing of Jacques Doucet, Duchamp built another optical device based on the first one, Rotative Demisphère, optique de précision (Rotary Demisphere, Precision Optics). This time the optical element was a globe cut in half, with black concentric circles painted on it. When it spins, the circles appear to move backwards and forwards in space. Duchamp asked that Doucet not exhibit the apparatus as art.:254–255
Rotoreliefs were the next phase of Duchamp’s spinning works. To make the optical “play toys”, he painted designs on flat cardboard circles and spun them on a phonographic turntable. When spinning, the flat disks appeared three-dimensional. He had a printer produce 500 sets of six of the designs, and set up a booth at a 1935 Paris inventors’ show to sell them. The venture was a financial disaster, but some optical scientists thought they might be of use in restoring three-dimensional stereoscopic sight to people who have lost vision in one eye.:301–303 In collaboration with Man Ray and Marc Allégret, Duchamp filmed early versions of the Rotoreliefs and they named the film Anémic Cinéma (1926). Later, in Alexander Calder‘s studio in 1931, while looking at the sculptor’s kinetic works, Duchamp suggested that these should be called “mobiles“. Calder agreed to use this novel term in his upcoming show. To this day, sculptures of this type are called “mobiles”.:294
Between 1912 and 1915, Duchamp worked with various musical ideas. At least three pieces have survived: two compositions and a note for a musical happening. The two compositions are based on chance operations. Erratum Musical, written for three voices, was published in 1934. La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires même. Erratum Musical is unfinished and was never published or exhibited during Duchamp’s lifetime. According to the manuscript, the piece was intended for a mechanical instrument “in which the virtuoso intermediary is suppressed”. The manuscript also contains a description for “An apparatus automatically recording fragmented musical periods”, consisting of a funnel, several open-end cars and a set of numbered balls. These pieces predate John Cage‘s Music of Changes (1951), which is often considered the first modern piece to be conceived largely through random procedures.
In 1968, Duchamp and John Cage appeared together at a concert entitled “Reunion”, playing a game of chess and composing Aleatoric music by triggering a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard.
“Rrose Sélavy”, also spelled Rose Sélavy, was one of Duchamp’s pseudonyms. The name, a pun, sounds like the French phrase “Eros, c’est la vie”, which may be translated as “Eros, such is life”. It has also been read as “arroser la vie” (“to make a toast to life”). Sélavy emerged in 1921 in a series of photographs by Man Ray showing Duchamp dressed as a woman. Through the 1920s Man Ray and Duchamp collaborated on more photos of Sélavy. Duchamp later used the name as the byline on written material and signed several creations with it. These included at least one sculpture, Why Not Sneeze Rrose Sélavy? (1921). The sculpture, a type of readymade called an assemblage, consists of a mercury oral thermometer, 152 white cubes (made of marble, but resembling sugar cubes), a piece of cuttlebone, and a tiny porcelain dish inside a birdcage.
The inspiration for the name “Rrose Sélavy” may have been Belle da Costa Greene, J.P. Morgan‘s librarian of the Pierpont Morgan Library. Following the death of J.P. Morgan, Sr., Greene became the Library’s director, working there for a total of forty-three years. Empowered by the Morgans, she built the library collection, buying and selling rare manuscripts, books and art.
Rrose Sélavy and the other pseudonyms Duchamp used may be read as a comment on the fallacy of romanticizing the conscious individuality or subjectivity of the artist, a theme that is also a prominent subtext of the Readymades. Duchamp said in an interview,”You think you’re doing something entirely your own, and a year later you look at it and you see actually the roots of where your art comes from without your knowing it at all.”
Transition from art to chess
In 1918, Duchamp took leave of the New York art scene, interrupting his work on the Large Glass, and went to Buenos Aires, where he remained for nine months and often played chess. He carved from wood his own chess set, with the assistance of a local craftsman who made the knights. He moved to Paris in 1919, and then back to the United States in 1920. Upon his return to Paris in 1923, Duchamp was, in essence, no longer a practicing artist. Instead, his main interest was chess, which he studied for the rest of his life to the exclusion of most other activities.
Duchamp is seen, briefly, playing chess with Man Ray in the short film Entr’acte (1924) by René Clair. He designed the 1925 Poster for the Third French Chess Championship, and as a competitor in the event, finished at fifty percent (3–3, with two draws). Thus he earned the title of chess master. During this period his fascination with chess so distressed his first wife that she glued his pieces to the board. Duchamp continued to play in the French Championships and also in the Chess Olympiads from 1928–1933, favoring hypermodern openings such as the Nimzo-Indian.
Sometime in the early 1930s, Duchamp reached the height of his ability, but realized that he had little chance of winning recognition in top-level chess. In the following years, his participation in chess tournaments declined, but he discovered correspondence chess and became a chess journalist, writing weekly newspaper columns. While his contemporaries were achieving spectacular success in the art world by selling their works to high-society collectors, Duchamp observed, “I am still a victim of chess. It has all the beauty of art—and much more. It cannot be commercialized. Chess is much purer than art in its social position.” On another occasion, Duchamp elaborated, “The chess pieces are the block alphabet which shapes thoughts; and these thoughts, although making a visual design on the chess-board, express their beauty abstractly, like a poem. … I have come to the personal conclusion that while all artists are not chess players, all chess players are artists.”
In 1932, Duchamp teamed with chess theorist Vitaly Halberstadt to publish L’opposition et cases conjuguées sont réconciliées (Opposition and Sister Squares are Reconciled), known as corresponding squares. This treatise describes the Lasker-Reichhelm position, an extremely rare type of position that can arise in the endgame. Using enneagram-like charts that fold upon themselves, the authors demonstrated that in this position, the most Black can hope for is a draw.
The theme of the “endgame” is important to an understanding of Duchamp’s complex attitude towards his artistic career. Irish playwright Samuel Beckett was an associate of Duchamp, and used the theme as the narrative device for the 1957 play of the same name, Endgame. In 1968, Duchamp played an artistically important chess match with avant-garde composer John Cage, at a concert entitled “Reunion”. Music was produced by a series of photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard, triggered sporadically by normal game play.
On choosing a career in chess, Duchamp said, “If Bobby Fischer came to me for advice, I certainly would not discourage him—as if anyone could—but I would try to make it positively clear that he will never have any money from chess, live a monk-like existence and know more rejection than any artist ever has, struggling to be known and accepted.” Duchamp left a legacy to chess in the form of an enigmatic endgame problem he composed in 1943. The problem was included in the announcement for Julian Levi’s gallery exhibition Through the Big End of the Opera Glass, printed on translucent paper with the faint inscription: “White to play and win”. Grandmasters and endgame specialists have since grappled with the problem, with most concluding that there is no solution.
Later artistic involvement
Although Duchamp was no longer considered to be an active artist, he continued to consult with artists, art dealers and collectors. From 1925 he often traveled between France and the United States, and made New York’s Greenwich Village his home in 1942. He also occasionally worked on artistic projects such as the short film Anemic Cinema (1926), Box in a Valise (1935–41), Self Portrait in Profile (1958) and the larger work Étant Donnés (1946–66).
From the mid-1930s onwards, he collaborated with the Surrealists, however, he did not join the movement despite the coaxing of André Breton. From then until 1944, together with Max Ernst, Eugenio Granell and Breton, Duchamp edited the Surrealist periodical VVV, and also served as an advisory editor for the magazine View, which featured him in its March 1945 edition, thus introducing him to a broader American audience.
Duchamp’s influence on the art world remained behind the scenes until the late 1950s, when he was “discovered” by young artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, who were eager to escape the dominance of Abstract Expressionism. He was a co-founder of the international literary group Oulipo in 1960. Interest in Duchamp was reignited in the 1960s, and he gained international public recognition. In 1963, the Pasadena Art Museum mounted his first retrospective exhibition, and there he appeared in an iconic photograph playing chess opposite nude model Eve Babitz. The photograph was later described by the Smithsonian Archives of American Art as being “among the key documentary images of American modern art”.
In 1966 the Tate Gallery hosted a large exhibit of his work. Other major institutions, including the Philadelphia Art Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, followed with large showings of Duchamp’s work. He was invited to lecture on art and to participate in formal discussions, as well as sitting for interviews with major publications. As the last surviving member of the Duchamp family of artists, in 1967 Duchamp helped to organize an exhibition in Rouen, France, called Les Duchamp: Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp. Parts of this family exhibition were later shown again at the Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris.
Duchamp was the designer of the 1938 International Surrealist Exhibition, which was held at the Gallerie des Beaux-arts, Paris. The show featured more than 60 artists from different countries, including approximately 300 paintings, objects, collages, photographs and installations. The surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would be a creative act, and called on Duchamp to do so. At the exhibition’s entrance he placed Salvador Dalí‘s Rainy Taxi This work consisted of a taxicab rigged to produce a drizzle of water down the inside of the windows, a shark-headed creature in the driver’s seat, and a blond mannequin crawling with live snails in the back. In this way Duchamp greeted entering patrons, who were in full evening dress.
Surrealist Street filled one side of the lobby with mannequins dressed by various surrealists. The main hall was a simulation of a dark subterranean cave with 1,200 coal bags suspended from the ceiling. Illumination was provided only by a single light bulb, so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art. An installation by Wolfgang Paalen was composed of oak leaves and a water-filled pond with water lilies and reeds, while the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air. Around midnight, the visitors witnessed the dancing shimmer of a sparsely dressed girl who suddenly arose from the reeds, jumped on a bed, shrieked hysterically, then disappeared just as quickly. Much to the surrealists’ satisfaction the exhibition scandalized the viewers.
In 1942, for the First Papers of Surrealism show in New York, surrealists again called on Duchamp to design the exhibition. This time he wove a three-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works. Duchamp made a secret arrangement with an associate’s son to bring young friends to the opening of the show. When the finely dressed patrons arrived, they found a dozen children in athletic clothes kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. When questioned, the children were told to say “Mr. Duchamp told us we could play here.” Duchamp’s design of the catalog for the show included “found”, rather than posed, photographs of the artists.
Throughout his adult life, Duchamp was a passionate smoker of Habana cigars.
Duchamp became a United States citizen in 1955.
In June 1927, Duchamp married Lydie Sarazin-Lavassor; however, they divorced six months later. It was rumored that Duchamp had chosen a marriage of convenience, because Sarazin-Lavassor was the daughter of a wealthy automobile manufacturer. Early in January 1928, Duchamp said that he could no longer bear the responsibility and confinement of marriage, and soon thereafter they were divorced.
After Sarazin-Lavassor’s death, Duchamp allowed Mary Reynolds to reveal their complicated—and heretofore secret—ongoing 20-year relationship. They were together until her death in 1950 of uterine cancer.
In 1954, he and Alexina “Teeny” Sattler married, and they remained together until his death.
Duchamp’s final major art work surprised the art world that believed he had given up art for chess 25 years earlier. Entitled Étant donnés: 1° la chute d’eau / 2° le gaz d’éclairage (“Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas”), it is a tableau, visible only through a peep hole in a wooden door. A nude woman can be seen lying on her back with her face hidden, legs spread, and one hand holding a gas lamp in the air against a landscape backdrop. Duchamp had worked secretly on the piece from 1946 to 1966 in his Greenwich Village studio while even his closest friends thought he had abandoned art.
Death and burial
Duchamp was an atheist. Even to his death, Duchamp retained a sense of humor (a means for him of reaffirming his freedom, while undermining absolutes and certainties). The evening of 1 October 1968 had been a pleasant one, dining at home with his friends Man Ray and Robert Lebel. Shortly after his guests had left, it happened suddenly and peacefully. Just before retiring at 1:05 A.M. his heart simply stopped beating.
Marcel Duchamp died on 2 October 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, and is buried in the Rouen Cemetery, in Rouen, France. His grave bears the epitaph, “D’ailleurs, c’est toujours les autres qui meurent” (“Besides, it’s always the others who die”).
Duchamp is considered by many critics to be one of the most important artists of the 20th century, and his output influenced the development of post–World War I Western art. He advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim and other prominent figures, thereby helping to shape the tastes of Western art during this period. He challenged conventional thought about artistic processes and rejected the emerging art market, through subversive anti-art. He famously dubbed a urinal art and named it Fountain. Duchamp produced relatively few artworks, while remaining mostly aloof of the avant-garde circles of his time. He went on to pretend to abandon art and devote the rest of his life to chess, while secretly continuing to make art. In 1958 Duchamp said of creativity,
The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to the creative act.
Duchamp in his later life explicitly expressed negativity towards art itself. In a BBC interview with Duchamp conducted by Joan Bakewell in 1966 Duchamp compared art with religion, whereby he stated that he wished to do away with art the same way many have done away with religion. Duchamp goes on to explain to the interviewer that “the word art etymologically means to do”, that art means activity of any kind, and that it is our society that creates “purely artificial” distinctions of being an artist.
A quotation erroneously attributed to Duchamp suggests a negative attitude toward later trends in 20th-century art:
This Neo-Dada, which they call New Realism, Pop Art, Assemblage, etc., is an easy way out, and lives on what Dada did. When I discovered the ready-mades I sought to discourage aesthetics. In Neo-Dada they have taken my readymades and found aesthetic beauty in them, I threw the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now they admire them for their aesthetic beauty.
However, this was actually written in 1961 by fellow Dadaist Hans Richter, in the second person, i.e. “You threw the bottle-rack…”. Although a marginal note in the letter suggests that Duchamp generally approved of the statement, Richter did not make the distinction clear until many years later.
Duchamp’s attitude was actually more favorable, as evidenced by another statement made in 1964:
Pop Art is a return to “conceptual” painting, virtually abandoned, except by the Surrealists, since [Gustave] Courbet, in favor of retinal painting…. If you take a Campbell soup can and repeat it 50 times, you are not interested in the retinal image. What interests you is the concept that wants to put 50 Campbell soup cans on a canvas.
The Prix Marcel Duchamp (Marcel Duchamp Prize), established in 2000, is an annual award given to a young artist by the Centre Georges Pompidou. In 2004, as a testimony to the legacy of Duchamp’s work to the art world, his Fountain was voted “the most influential artwork of the 20th century” by a panel of prominent artists and art historians.
Anti-art is a loosely-used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point of art. The term is associated with the Dada movement and is generally accepted as attributable to Marcel Duchamp pre-World War I around 1914, when he began to use found objects as art. It was used to describe revolutionary forms of art. The term was used later by the Conceptual artists of the 1960s to describe the work of those who claimed to have retired altogether from the practice of art, from the production of works which could be sold.
An expression of anti-art can take the form of art or not. In general, anti-art rejects only some aspects of art. Depending on the case, “anti-artworks” may reject conventional artistic standards.
Anti-artworks may also reject the art market, and high art. Anti-artworks may reject individualism in art. Anti-art may reject “universality” as an accepted factor in art, and some forms of anti-art reject art entirely. Depending on the case, anti-art artworks may reject art as a separate realm or as a specialization.
Anti-art artworks may reject art based upon a consideration of art as being oppressive of a segment of the population.
Anti-art artworks may articulate a disagreement with the generally supposed notion of there being a separation between art and life. Indeed, anti-art artworks may voice a question as to whether “art” really exists or not. “Anti-art” has been referred to as a “paradoxical neologism,” in that its ostensible opposition to art has been observed concurring with staples of twentieth-century art or “modern art,” in particular art movements that have self-consciously sought to transgress traditions or institutions. Anti-art itself is not a distinct art movement, however. This would tend to be indicated by the time it spans—longer than that usually spanned by art movements. Some art movements though, are labeled “anti-art.” The Dada movement is generally considered the first anti-art movement; the term anti-art itself is said to have been coined by Dadaist Marcel Duchamp around 1914, and his ready-mades have been cited as early examples of anti-art objects. Theodor W. Adorno in Aesthetic Theory (1970) stated that “…even the abolition of art is respectful of art because it takes the truth claim of art seriously.”
Anti-art has become generally accepted by the artworld to be art, although some people still reject Duchamp’s readymades as art, for instance the Stuckist group of artists, who are “anti-anti-art“.
Anti-art can take the form of art or not. It is posited that anti-art need not even take the form of art, in order to embody its function as anti-art. This point is disputed. Some of the forms of anti-art which are art strive to reveal the conventional limits of art by expanding its properties.
Some instances of anti-art are suggestive of a reduction to what might seem to be fundamental elements or building blocks of art. Examples of this sort of phenomenon might include monochrome paintings, empty frames, silence as music, chance art. Anti-art is also often seen to make use of highly innovative materials and techniques, and well beyond—to include hitherto unheard of elements in visual art. These types of anti-art can be readymades, found art, détournement, combine paintings, appropriation (art), happenings, performance art, body art.
Anti-art can involve the renouncement of making art entirely. This can be accomplished through an art strike and this can also be accomplished through revolutionary activism. An aim of anti-art can be to undermine or understate individual creativity. This may be accomplished through the utilization of readymades. Individual creativity can be further downplayed by the use of industrial processes in the making of art. Anti-artists may seek to undermine individual creativity by producing their artworks anonymously. They may refuse to show their artworks. They may refuse public recognition. Anti-artists may choose to work collectively, in order to place less emphasis on individual identity and individual creativity. This can be seen in the instance of happenings. This is sometimes the case with “supertemporal” artworks, which are by design impermanent. Anti-artists will sometimes destroy their works of art. Some artworks made by anti-artists are purposely created to be destroyed. This can be seen in auto-destructive art.
André Malraux has developed a concept of anti-art quite different from that outlined above. For Malraux, anti-art began with the ‘Salon’ or ‘Academic’ art of the nineteenth century which rejected the basic ambition of art in favour of a semi-photographic illusionism (often prettified). Of Academic painting, Malraux writes, ‘All true painters, all those for whom painting is a value, were nauseated by these pictures – “Portrait of a Great Surgeon Operating” and the like – because they saw in them not a form of painting, but the negation of painting’. For Malraux, anti-art is still very much with us, though in a different form. Its descendants are commercial cinema and television, and popular music and fiction. The ‘Salon’, Malraux writes, ‘has been expelled from painting, but elsewhere it reigns supreme’.
Anti-art is also a tendency in the theoretical understanding of art and Fine Art.
The philosopher Roger Taylor puts forward that art is a bourgeois ideology that has its origins with capitalism in “Art, an Enemy of the People”. Holding a strong anti-essentialist position he states also that art has not always existed and is not universal but peculiar to Europe.
The Invention of Art: A Cultural History by Larry Shiner is an art history book which fundamentally questions our understanding of art. “The modern system of art is not an essence or a fate but something we have made. Art as we have generally understood it is a European invention barely two hundred years old.” (Shiner 2003, p. 3) Shiner presents (fine)art as a social construction that has not always existed throughout human history and could also disappear in its turn.
Pre World War I
Jean-Jacques Rousseau rejected the separation between performer and spectator, life and theatre. Karl Marx posited that art was a consequence of the class system and therefore concluded that, in a communist society, there would only be people who engage in the making of art and no “artists”.
Arguably the first movement that deliberately set itself in opposition to established art were the Incoherents in late 19th. century Paris. Founded by Jules Lévy in 1882, the Incoherents organized charitable art exhibitions intended to be satirical and humoristic, they presented “…drawings by people who can’t draw…” and held masked balls with artistic themes, all in the greater tradition of Montmartre cabaret culture. While short lived – the last Incoherent show took place in 1896 – the movement was popular for its entertainment value. In their commitment to satire, irreverence and ridicule they produced a number of works that show remarkable formal similarities to creations of the avant-garde of the 20th century: ready-mades, monochromes, empty frames and silence as music.
Dada and constructivism
Beginning in Switzerland, during World War I, much of Dada, and some aspects of the art movements it inspired, such as Neo-Dada, Nouveau réalisme and Fluxus, is considered anti-art. Dadaists rejected cultural and intellectual conformity in art and more broadly in society. For everything that art stood for, Dada was to represent the opposite.
Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics completely. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend. Through their rejection of traditional culture and aesthetics the Dadaists hoped to destroy traditional culture and aesthetics. Because they were more politicized, the Berlin dadas were the most radically anti-art within Dada. In 1919, in the Berlin group, the Dadaist revolutionary central council outlined the Dadaist ideals of radical communism.
Tristan Tzara indicated: “I am against systems; the most acceptable system is on principle to have none.” In addition, Tzara, who once stated that “logic is always false”, probably approved of Walter Serner‘s vision of a “final dissolution”. A core concept in Tzara‘s thought was that “as long as we do things the way we think we once did them we will be unable to achieve any kind of livable society.”
Originating in Russia in 1919, constructivism rejected art in its entirety and as a specific activity creating a universal aesthetic in favour of practices directed towards social purposes, “useful” to everyday life, such as graphic design, advertising and photography. In 1921, exhibiting at the 5×5=25 exhibition, Alexander Rodchenko created monochromes and proclaimed the end of painting. For artists of the Russian Revolution, Rodchenko’s radical action was full of utopian possibility. It marked the end of art along with the end of bourgeois norms and practices. It cleared the way for the beginning of a new Russian life, a new mode of production, a new culture.
Beginning in the early 1920s, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Surrealism as a political force developed unevenly around the world, in some places more emphasis being put on artistic practices, while in others political practises outweighed. In other places still, Surrealist praxis looked to overshadow both the arts and politics. Politically, Surrealism was ultra-leftist, communist, or anarchist. The split from Dada has been characterised as a split between anarchists and communists, with the Surrealists as communist. In 1925, the Bureau of Surrealist Research declared their affinity for revolutionary politics. By the 1930s many Surrealists had strongly identified themselves with communism. Breton and his comrades supported Leon Trotsky and his International Left Opposition for a while, though there was an openness to anarchism that manifested more fully after World War II.
Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. Breton believed the tenets of Surrealism could be applied in any circumstance of life, and is not merely restricted to the artistic realm. Breton‘s followers, along with the Communist Party, were working for the “liberation of man.” However, Breton’s group refused to prioritize the proletarian struggle over radical creation such that their struggles with the Party made the late 1920s a turbulent time for both. Many individuals closely associated with Breton, notably Louis Aragon, left his group to work more closely with the Communists. In 1929, Breton asked Surrealists to assess their “degree of moral competence”, and theoretical refinements included in the second manifeste du surréalisme excluded anyone reluctant to commit to collective action
By the end of World War II the surrealist group led by André Breton decided to explicitly embrace anarchism. In 1952 Breton wrote “It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself.”
Letterism and the Situationist International
Founded in the mid-1940s in France by Isidore Isou, the Letterists utilised material appropriated from other films, a technique which would subsequently be developed (under the title of ‘détournement‘) in Situationist films. They would also often supplement the film with live performance, or, through the ‘film-debate’, directly involve the audience itself in the total experience. The most radical of the Letterist films, Wolman’s The Anticoncept and Debord’s Howls for Sade abandoned images altogether.
In 1956, recalling the infinitesimals of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, quantities which could not actually exist except conceptually, the founder of Lettrism, Isidore Isou, developed the notion of a work of art which, by its very nature, could never be created in reality, but which could nevertheless provide aesthetic rewards by being contemplated intellectually. Related to this, and arising out of it, is excoördism, the current incarnation of the Isouian movement, defined as the art of the infinitely large and the infinitely small.
In 1960, Isidore Isou created supertemporal art: a device for inviting and enabling an audience to participate in the creation of a work of art. In its simplest form, this might involve nothing more than the inclusion of several blank pages in a book, for the reader to add his or her own contributions.
In Japan in the late 1950s, Group Kyushu was an edgy, experimental and rambunctious art group. They ripped and burned canvasses, stapled corrugated cardboard, nails, nuts, springs, metal drill shavings, and burlap to their works, assembled all kinds of unwieldy junk assemblages, and were best known for covering much of their work in tar. They also occasionally covered their work in urine and excrement. They tried to bring art closer to everyday life, by incorporating objects from daily life into their work, and also by exhibiting and performing their work outside on the street for everyone to see.
Other similar anti-art groups included Neo-Dada (Neo-Dadaizumu Oganaizazu), Gutai (Gutai Bijutsu Kyokai), and Hi-Red-Center. Influenced in various ways by L’Art Informel, these groups and their members worked to foreground material in their work: rather than seeing the art work as representing some remote referent, the material itself and the artists’ interaction with it became the main point. The freeing up of gesture was another legacy of L’Art Informel, and the members of Group Kyushu took to it with great verve, throwing, dripping, and breaking material, sometimes destroying the work in the process.
Beginning in the 1950s in France, the Letterist International and after the Situationist International developed a dialectical viewpoint, seeing their task as superseding art, abolishing the notion of art as a separate, specialized activity and transforming it so it became part of the fabric of everyday life. From the Situationist’s viewpoint, art is revolutionary or it is nothing. In this way, the Situationists saw their efforts as completing the work of both Dada and surrealism while abolishing both. The situationists renounced the making of art entirely.
The Situationist International was probably the most radical, politicized, well organized and theoretically productive anti-art movement, reaching its apex with the student protests and general strike of May 1968 in France.
Neo-dada and later
Similar to Dada, in the 1960s, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists used their minimal performances to blur the distinction between life and art.
In 1962 Henry Flynt began to campaign for an anti-art position. Flynt wanted avant-garde art to become superseded by the terms of veramusement and brend – neologisms meaning approximately pure recreation.
In 1963 George Maciunas advocated revolution, “living art, anti-art” and “non art reality to be grasped by all peoples”. Maciunas strived to uphold his stated aims of demonstrating the artist’s ‘non-professional status…his dispensability and inclusiveness’ and that ‘anything can be art and anyone can do it.’
In the 1960s, the Dada-influenced art group Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be “an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth.” Black Mask disrupted cultural events in New York by giving made up flyers of art events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks. Later, the Motherfuckers were to grow out of a combination of Black Mask and another group called Angry Arts.
The BBC aired an interview with Duchamp conducted by Joan Bakewell in 1966 which expressed some of Duchamps more explicit Anti-Art ideas. Duchamp compared art with religion, whereby he stated that he wished to do away with art the same way many have done away with religion. Duchamp goes on to explain to the interviewer that “the word art etymologically means to do”, that art means activity of any kind, and that it is our society that creates “purely artificial” distinctions of being an artist.
During the 1970s, King Mob was responsible for various attacks on art galleries. According to the philosopher Roger Taylor the concept of art is not universal but is an invention of bourgeois ideology helping to promote this social order. He compares it to a cancer that colonises other forms of life so that it becomes difficult to distinguish one from the other.
Stewart Home called for an Art Strike between 1990 and 1993. Unlike earlier art-strike proposals such as that of Gustav Metzger in the 1970s, it was not intended as an opportunity for artists to seize control of the means of distributing their own work, but rather as an exercise in propaganda and psychic warfare aimed at smashing the entire art world rather than just the gallery system. As Black Mask had done in the 1960s, Stewart Home disrupted cultural events in London in the 1990s by giving made up flyers of literary events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks.
The K Foundation was an art foundation that published a series of Situationist-inspired press adverts and extravagant subversions in the art world. Most notoriously, when their plans to use banknotes as part of a work of art fell through, they burnt a million pounds in cash.
Punk has developed anti-art positions. Some “industrial music” bands describe their work as a form of “cultural terrorism” or as a form of “anti-art”. The term is also used to describe other intentionally provocative art forms, such as nonsense verse.
Anti-art becomes art
Paradoxically, most forms of anti-art have gradually been completely accepted by the art establishment as normal and conventional forms of art. Even the movements which rejected art with the most virulence are now collected by the most prestigious cultural institutions.
ARTE CONCEPTUAL Y POSTCONCEPTUAL: MARCEL DUCHAMP Y LOS READY-MADE Por ADOLFO VÁSQUEZ ROCCA PHD.
Ver → <http://youtu.be/w-R5IbJm4S4>
STRANGE IDEA OF LOVE – ALL ABOUT EVE BABITZ
BY Adolfo Vasquez Rocca.– VÁSQUEZ ROCCA, Adolfo, “ARTE CONCEPTUAL Y POSCONCEPTUAL; LA IDEA COMO ARTE: DUCHAMP, BEUYS, CAGE Y FLUXUS”, En NÓMADAS Nº 37 (2013.1) Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
STRANGE IDEA OF LOVE – ALL ABOUT EVE BABITZ
Ver → <http://youtu.be/w-R5IbJm4S4>
“Arte Conceptual y Posconceptual; la idea como arte: Duchamp, Beuys, Cage y Fluxus”, en NÓMADAS Nº 37 (2013.1) Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
ARTE CONCEPTUAL Y POSTCONCEPTUAL: MARCEL DUCHAMP DEL PERFORMANCE A LOS READY-MADE Por ADOLFO VÁSQUEZ ROCCA PHD.
Versión ampliada, de la Publicación original: Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “El arte abandona la galería ¿Adónde va? En torno a Beuys y la reconstrucción del Museo como proyecto ilustrado”, DEBAT’S Nº 101 – 108, pp. 19-26, Revista trimestral editada por la Institució Alfons el Magnànim, Valencia, España.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Nicanor Parra: Antipoemas, parodias y lenguajes híbridos. De la Antipoesía al lenguaje del Artefacto“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – Universidad Complutense de Madrid UCM, Nº MONOGRÁFICO [Nº Especial: América Latina (2012)] pp. 213 – 231
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Ilya Kabakov; el Conceptualismo ruso, viviendas comunitarias y el arte de la documentación“. En Revista DU&P Revista de Diseño Urbano y Paisaje, Universidad Central de Chile, Facultad de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Paisaje, FAUP, ISSN 0717- 9758, Volumen V, Nº 15-16 Diciembre 2008-2009
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Lucian Freud; tras los pliegues de la carne; Una aproximación al retrato psicológico (In memoriam)“, En Revista de Crítica de Arte -Critic@rte-, Segundo Semestre, 2011, Puebla, México.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Fluxus y Beuys: De la Acción de Arte a la Plástica Social“, En Revista Homines –Arte y Cultura– MA-739-2004, 2009, Málaga, España. http://www.homines.com/arte_xx/fluxus_y_beuys/index.htm
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “La fotografía y las formas del olvido; del furor de la imagen al frenesí de lo real“, en AL MARGEN.net, Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, CONACULTA – SIC – Guadalajara, México. http://www.almargen.net/47-hn3.html
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Estética de la virtualidad y deconstrucción del museo como proyecto ilustrado”, En Revista NÓMADAS Nº 28 – 2008, Instituto de Estudios Sociales Contemporáneos, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Humanidades y Arte –Universidad Central, Colombia, pp. 122 – 127.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Joseph Beuys: ‘cada hombre, un artista’. Los Documenta de Kassel o el Arte abandona la galería“, HoraSur, ELPAIS.com, abril – mayo 2008. Reproducido en Margen Cero ©, Madrid 2008 . http://www.margencero.com/articulos/new/joseph_beuys.html
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Rostros y espacio interfacial; hacia una teoría del retrato en Sloterdijk” En ENFOCARTE Nº 33 – 2008, Publicación Patrocinada por la Secretaría de Cultura Gobierno de Buenos Aires. http://www.enfocarte.com/7.33/rocca.html
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Lo monstruoso en el Arte”, En Almiar MARGEN CERO, Revista Fundadora de la Asociación de Revistas digitales de España – Nº 40 / 2008.
Publicaciones Internacionales Catalogadas en DIALNET Directorio de Publicaciones Científicas Hispanoamericanas
Biblioteca Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Revistas Científicas Complutenses
Eastern Mediterranean University – Academia.edu
ROMANTICISMO OSCURO O ROMANTICISMO DARK: DE LA LITERATURA GÓTICA A LOS POETAS MALDITOS Por ADOLFO VÁSQUEZ ROCCA PHD.
“Y cosecharon los frutos maduros de su perdición”
La expresión romanticismo oscuro proviene por un lado de su condición pesimista y por otro de la influencia del primigenio movimiento romántico. Su nacimiento se produjo a mediados del siglo XIX, como se ha dicho, a partir del trascendentalismo. Éste se originó en Nueva Inglaterra a cargo de intelectuales de renombre como Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau y Margaret Fuller, y cosechó gran prestigio más o menos desde 1836 hasta finales de los 1840s. El movimiento tuvo gran influencia en distintas áreas, como la literatura, a medida que los escritores iban imbuyéndose de su doctrina.4 Mientras tanto, ciertos autores, entre ellos los citados Poe, Hawthorne y Melville, encontraron las ideas trascentalistas demasiado optimistas o egoístas, y reaccionaron contra ellas a través de sus obras poéticas y prosísticas; ésta sería la tendencia que daría origen al “Dark Romanticism”.
II.- Los célebres escritores malditos
Y lo era. El señor Percy, como más tarde miles de lectores de todo el mundo, cayeron hechizados por la historia irónica, desternillante y a la vez repugnante de Ignatius J. Reilly, un esperpento literario totalmente original e incómodo, una mezcla sublime entre Don Quijote, Max Estrella y Tomás de Aquino.
Toole escribió una novela que destila una magia extraña, en la que la risa se combina con una sensación de tristeza y abandono que, de algún modo, consigue que el lector empatice con semejante personaje.
Las razones por las que Toole decidió acabar con su vida podrían residir en una fatídica identificación de la asfixiante vida de Ignatius con la suya propia. El escritor…
El escritor era el hijo único de una pareja mayor ya resignada a no tener descendencia y cuando John nació, su madre Thelma se implicó tanto en la educación de su retoño que acabaría reprimiéndole con su comportamiento sobreprotector.
Tras licenciarse en Literatura Inglesa, Toole escribió el primer borrador de La conjura de los necios mientras cumplía servicio militar. Pero cuando regresó a su Nueva Orleans natal, su actitud había dado un giro radical: se había aficionado demasiado al alcohol y vestía de forma excéntrica, casi calcando al protagonista de su obra. Algunos biógrafos atribuyen su caída a la frustración de no encontrar dónde publicar la novela, aunque otros apuntan a una probable homosexualidad ahogada por el trato de su madre.
Probablemente azotada por el remordimiento, Thelma dedicó el resto de su vida a realizar el sueño frustrado de su hijo.
Los otros actores que se consideraron para el proyecto (John Candy y Chris Farley) también murieron antes de que se pusiera en marcha. Y cuando Will Ferrell estaba decidido a ser Ignatius en el cine, y el equipo iba a empezar a rodar en Nueva Orleans (donde se ambienta la novela), llegó el huracán Katrina y lo arrasó todo.
Salinger, ante la avalancha de lectores, dinero y, sobre todo, medios de comunicación, decidió hacer realidad uno de los pasajes de su libro, en el que Holden dice: “me gustaría encontrar una cabaña en algún sitio y con el dinero que gane instalarme allí el resto de mi vida, lejos de cualquier conversación estúpida con la gente”.
|Salinger agrediendo a un fotógrafo en los 80. Fuente: El País|
No se pronunció sobre la leyenda negra que adquirió El guardián entre el centeno después de que Mark David Chapman asesinase a John Lennon en 1980 y dijese que el ataque de locura que le había llevado a hacerlo había sido provocado por el libro. La única foto que se conoce, además de las de su anuario y las del servicio militar, es una en la que aparece golpeando al fotógrafo que se había metido en su propiedad. La única entrevista que concedió fue por teléfono al New York Times, y lo hizo, básicamente, para que le dejaran tranquilo.
“Hay una paz maravillosa en no publicar. Es pacífico. Tranquilo. Publicar es una terrible invasión de mi vida privada. Me gusta escribir. Amo escribrir. Pero escribo sólo para mí mismo y para mi propio placer. La gente cree que soy una persona extraña y distante,pero todo lo que hago es intentar proteger mi trabajo.”
Actualmente sigue escribiendo desde su escondite, haciendo guiños simpáticos como prestar su voz en la serie Los Simpson para doblar a su propio dibujo animado (que, por supuesto, apareció con el rostro cubierto con una bolsa).
EN TORNO A LA BELLEZA FÍSICA Y EL EFÍMERO ENCANTO DE LOS ESCRITORES MALDITOS Por ADOLFO VÁSQUEZ ROCCA PHD.
– ¿Qué son los poetas malditos? ¿Dónde se origina esta denominación? Expresión creada por Verlaine [como una suerte de homenaje al poeta Arthur Rimbaud], la noción ya es toda una institución en el ámbito poético y hace referencia una actitud de incomprensión social frente al artista. Originada en tiempos románticos, invito a preguntarnos si este concepto no es más bien una mistificación autodestructiva que debe ser superada por una visión vigorosa, saludable y lúcida.
– El uso de la expresión “poetas malditos”, ante la influencia de la obra de Verlaine, se extendió a todos los dominios nacionales y pasó a designar así a todo aquel escritor talentoso, poco importase su nacionalidad, que presentase un dejo de incomprensión social y una cierta tendencia provocante (léase autodestructiva por el consumo de drogas o alcohol) y cuyos textos, dado su alto nivel de codificación poética, fuesen de oscuros significados.
Dr. Adolfo Vasquez Rocca
– Lo de que la belleza física es algo relativo está por ver. Realmente creo que esa teoría forma parte de esa idea tan americana de que nadie tiene por qué aceptar la más mínima frustración. De la misma forma que la enseñanza consiguió borrar del mapa el fracaso escolar -a cada estudiante hay que exigirle según sus posibilidades-, se inventó el ballet en silla de ruedas o los concursos de misses para mujeres gordas. La clave de la modernidad es que a nadie se le puede decir: tú para esto no sirves. Por supuesto se considera progresista el suponer la belleza como algo arbitrario, algo que depende del color del cristal con que se mira, cuando la realidad es que no ha cambiado tanto el canon desde que el arte representó de forma realista el rostro humano. En cuanto a la gordura, de la que la pintura ha dejado tan espléndidas muestras, ha sido la consecuencia más de la mala alimentación que de la estética. Hay científicos que afirman que un bebé siempre se sentirá más atraído por una cara agradable. Todo eso al margen de que hay feos atractivos, feos irresistibles; lo cual no quita para que por mucho que adecuemos el lenguaje a la corrección política siempre habrá guapos y feos. Además de la herencia genética, también nuestros rostros están expuestos a la vida que nos toca. Los lectores de Patricia Highsmith se quedarían asombrados si vieran sus fotos de juventud**. A Highsmith la recordamos por esas fotos de anciana de facciones durísimas, hinchadas probablemente por el alcohol. Sin embargo, en la biografía que sobre ella ha escrito Andrew Wilson, vemos algunas imágenes de los años cuarenta en las que aparece Patricia desnuda. Su imagen, tan dulce, tan bella, podría ser la de una actriz de hoy. Una compañera de universidad de la novelista decía: “Cuando la vi en sus últimas fotos no podía creer en lo que se había convertido…”. Leyendo la biografía de Highsmith deduje que esa asombrosa transformación de su cara era consecuencia del alcohol y de esa personalidad atormentada que los lectores con propensión a la mitomanía atribuyen al genio, y que la propia Patricia achacaba a los complejos y la consideración de bicho raro que tenía sobre sí misma. A ella, que acabó siendo una mujer fea, le siguieron gustando hasta su muerte las mujeres hermosas./
* [La transformación de su cara fue consecuencia del alcohol y de su personalidad atormentada, “maldita”.]
Adolfo Vásquez Rocca PHD.
VERLAINE, Paul , Los poetas malditos, ( Les Poètes maudits), París, 1884
RIMBAUD, A., Una temporada en el infierno,1873
PARRA, Sergio -periodista y escritor-, “Escritores malditos y sus malditas manías”, en Papel en Blanco, Barcelona, 2001
- Adolfo Vásquez Rocca Arte y Filosofía Contemporánea
VÁSQUEZ ROCCA, Adolfo, “Foucault: ‘Los Anormales’; una Genealogía de los Monstruoso. Apuntes para una Historiagrafía de la Locura“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID, Nº 34 – 2012 (2), pp. 403 – 420
ZAID, Gabriel, Los demasiados libros, Barcelona, Anagrama, 1996
– Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “W. Burroughs; La metáfora viral y sus mutaciones antropológicas” En Almiar MARGEN CERO, Revista Fundadora de la ASOCIACIÓN DE REVISTAS DIGITALES DE ESPAÑA – Nº 46 – 2009.
VÁSQUEZ ROCCA, Adolfo: “Lo abyecto y monstruoso en el arte de vanguardia”, En ESCÁNER CULTURAL, Revista de Arte Contemporáneo y Nuevas Tendencias, Santiago, año 8, Nº 87, 2006. <http://www.escaner.cl/escaner87/transversales.html>
CARRÈRE, Emilio, La copa de Verlaine, Madrid, 1918– Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “La Metáfora Viral en William Burroughs; Posmodernidad, compulsión y Literatura conspirativa”, en NÓMADAS, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Nº 13 (2006.1), p. 419-424, Versión digital: <http://revistas.ucm.es/cps/15786730/articulos/NOMA0606120419A.PDF>
Y En Qì Revista de pensamiento cultura y creación, Año VII – Nº 8, 2006, pp. 118 a 124, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
– Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Alfred Jarry; Patafísica, Virtualidad y Heterodoxia“, En ARQCHILE.CL ©, Portal Latinoamericano de Arquitectura, ISSN 0718-431X, Concepción, ISSN 0718-431X, junio – julio 2010, http://www.arqchile.cl/publicacion_jarry.htm
– Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “William Burroughs: Literatura ectoplasmoide y mutaciones antropológicas. Del virus del lenguaje a la psicotopografía del texto”, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – Universidad Complutense de Madrid, NÓMADAS. 26 | Enero-Junio.2010 (II), pp. 251-265. http://www.ucm.es/info/nomadas/26/avrocca2.pdf
PETER SLOTERDIJK: ESFERAS, BIOPOLÍTICA Y NORMAS PARA EL PARQUE HUMANO POR ADOLFO VÁSQUEZ ROCCA PHD.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Individualismo, Modernidad Líquida y Desilusión Hipermoderna: De Bauman a Sloterdijk”, En “Redazione Rosebud” –Critica, Scrittura, Giornalismo– Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Cagliari – marzo, 2013.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “La Posmodernidad. Nuevo régimen de verdad, violencia metafísica y fin de los metarrelatos“, Reedición en ROSEBUD – Redazione –Critica, Scrittura, Giornalismo– Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Cagliari, Italia, abril, 2013.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “En torno al diseño de lo humano en Sloterdijk: De la ontotecnología a las fuentes filosóficas del posthumanismo”, En La lámpara de Diógenes, Revista de Filosofía, BUAP, Año 13, Números 24 y 25, Vol. 13 – enero-junio – julio-diciembre 2012-2013, pp. 127 – 140
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Peter Sloterdijk: Experimentos con uno mismo, ensayos de intoxicación voluntaria y constitución psico-inmunitaria de la naturaleza humana“, En EIKASIA, Revista de la Sociedad Asturiana de Filosofía SAF, Nº 49 – Mayo 2013 – ISSN 1885-5679 – Oviedo, España, pp. 47-76
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Diálogo de Exiliados, Cine y Políticas estéticas en latinoamérica: Raúl Ruiz, Territorios, Ontología de lo fantástico y Polisemia visual“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – Universidad Complutense de Madrid UCM, Nº MONOGRÁFICO [Nº Especial: América Latina (2012)], pp. 187 – 211 http://www.ucm.es/info/nomadas/americalatina2012/adolfovasquezrocca.pdf
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Sloterdijk; secretos bizarros de Freud, discretas obsesiones telecomunicativas y primeras formaciones de psicología profunda europea“, En Revista LA LÁMPARA DE DIÓGENES, Año 12, números 22 y 23, Volumen 12 ISSN: 1870-4662; BUAP – MEX – PHILOSOPHER’S INDEX – 2012
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “La Modernidad Líquida podría ‘licuar’ las religiones”, por Leandro Sequeiros –Universidad de Sevilla– op. cit. “Modernidad líquida y fragilidad humana; de Zygmunt Bauman a Sloterdijk” Paper de Adolfo Vásquez Rocca; En TENDENCIAS 21 Revista Asociada al Capítulo Español del Club de Roma, al Master en Bioinformática de la Universidad Complutense +Madrid y al Instituto de Ingeniería de España.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Nicanor Parra: Antipoemas, parodias y lenguajes híbridos. De la Antipoesía al lenguaje del Artefacto“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – Universidad Complutense de Madrid UCM, Nº MONOGRÁFICO [Nº Especial: América Latina (2012)] pp. 213 – 231
Adolfo Vásquez Rocca, “Jean-Luc Nancy: Téchne de los cuerpos y apostasía de los organos; El intruso, ajenidad y reconocimiento“, En Revista Observaciones Filosóficas – Nº 11 – 2012 – ISSN 0718-3712 Filosofía Contemporánea – http://www.observacionesfilosoficas.net/ontologiayfenomenologia.htm
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “La Modernidad Líquida podría ‘licuar’ las religiones”, por Leandro Sequeiros –Universidad de Sevilla– citando op. cit. “Modernidad líquida y fragilidad humana; de Zygmunt Bauman a Sloterdijk” Paper de Adolfo Vásquez Rocca en Margen Cero; En TENDENCIAS 21 Revista Asociada al Capítulo Español del Club de Roma, al Master en Bioinformática de la Universidad Complutense +Madrid y al Instituto de Ingeniería de España.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “El Arte abandona la galería, ¿adónde va?; De la Crítica de Arte al negocio del arte como sistema de celos“, En Almiar, MARGEN CERO, Madrid, mayo, 2012, http://www.margencero.com/almiar/arte-galeria/
Versión ampliada, de la Publicación original: Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “El arte abandona la galería ¿Adónde va? En torno a Beuys y la reconstrucción del Museo como proyecto ilustrado”, DEBAT’S Nº 101 – 108, pp. 19-26, Revista trimestral editada por la Institució Alfons el Magnànim, Valencia, España.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, Artículo Conferencia: “Del ‘Humanismo’ de Sartre al ‘Anti-humanismo’ de Heidegger“, Encuentro Interdepartamental en torno a la Crisis de Fin de Siglo. Aspectos de la Identidad Europea. Paraninfo Facultad de Filosofía y filología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2012. En Manuscritos Transversales ©, UCM, 2012.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Lógica Paraconsistentente, Mundos Posibles y Ficciones Narrativas. La Ficción como campo de proyección de la Experiencia”, Reedición Ampliada en Revista de la Sociedad de Estudios Filosóficos de Madrid, Post-scriptum de A Parte Rei, 2012.
Publications du Centre Français d’Iconologie Comparée CFIC, Bès Editions , París, © 2012, ISBN: 978-2-35424-151-3
Antologado y Traducido al Francés – Publicado en la sección Architecture de la Anthologie: “Le Néant Dans la Pensée Contemporaine“, Bès Editions © 2012
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Nietzsche: de la voluntad de ficción al pathos de la verdad; aproximación estético?epistemológica a la concepción biológica de lo literario“, En EIKASIA, Revista de la Sociedad Asturiana de Filosofía SAF, Nº 46 – Noviembre 2012 – ISSN 1885-5679 – Oviedo, España, pp. 33 – 44.
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Foucault: ‘Los Anormales’; una Genealogía de los Monstruoso. Apuntes para una Historiagrafía de la Locura“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID, Nº 34 – 2012 (2), pp. 403 – 420
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Ontología del Cuerpo y estética de la enfermedad en Jean-Luc Nancy: De la téchne de los cuerpos a la apostasía de los órganos“, En NÓMADAS, Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas – UNIVERSIDAD COMPLUTENSE DE MADRID, Nº 34 – 2012 (2), pp. 421-445
Vásquez Rocca, Adolfo, “Peter Sloterdijk: Experimentos con uno mismo; Ensayos de intoxicación voluntaria e inmunología especulativa”, En Revista Observaciones Filosóficas ISSN 0718-3712 –ROF– 2012, y Directorio DOAJ – Directory of Open Access Journals – Lund University, Suecia.
 Doesburg, Th. van, “Wat is Dada???”, en White, M., (Ed.) What is Dada??? And other dada writings, Londres, Atlas Press, 2006, p. 33. Texto completo en neerlandés disponible en Biblioteca Digital Dadá de la Universidad de Iowa (Consultado: 27.05.11) Que empezaría a publicar su novela “suprahumanista” y “abstracta” La otra cara en De Stijl en 1920 donde describía esta concepción positiva del dadaísmo: “Cuando tras el sin sentido se esconde un sentido más profundo que el de la norma, el sin sentido no sólo es lícito sino necesario. De esta manera el Dadaísmo creará nuevas normas que estarán más allá de los sentidos”. Véase Bonset, I.K. “Het andere gezicht”, De Stijl, III, 10, 1920, p. 84. Crego Castaño, C., “De Stijl y la vanguardia europea” en El espejo del orden. El arte y la estética del grupo holandés “De Stijl”, Madrid, Akal, pp. 90-91. White, M., (Ed.) “Introduction: The Dada Tour of Holland” en What is Dada??? And other dada writings, Londres, Atlas Press, 2006, p. 9. Dachy, M., “Life is an extraordinary invention: Doesburg the dadaist”, en Van Doesburg & the International Avant-garde. Constructing a New World, Londres, Tate Publishing, 2009, p. 29. «Muñeco de sombra» que podía ser controlado mecánicamente para producir una variedad limitada de posturas. La primera representación pública de Mechanische Dansfiguur tuvo lugar en 1920. Doesburg, Th. van, “La lucha por el nuevo estilo”, en Principios del nuevo arte plástico y otros escritos, Murcia, Colegio Oficial de Aparejadores y Arquitectos, 1985, pp. 186-187